A couple of weeks ago, I read Carl Trueman’s new book The Creedal Imperative (Crossway, 2012). As a confessionally minded Baptist, I resonated with much of what Trueman wrote, though I’m no doubt more chastened in my confessionalism than Trueman. (His book could have been subtitled, “Why I am a Confessional Presbyterian–And You Should Be Too.”) I agree wholeheartedly with my Presbyterian brother that too much of North American evangelicalism is doctrinally listless, especially in terms of ecclesiological matters. I also share his more optimistic view of denominations, which sets him (and me) apart from many contemporary evangelicals.
One paragraph that stood out in The Creedal Imperative touches on the reality that all churches are creedal on some level. Trueman argues:
I do want to make the point here that Christians are not divided between those who have creeds and confessions and those who do not; rather, they are divided between those who have public creeds and confessions and that are written down and exist as public documents, subject to public scrutiny, evaluation, and critique, and those who have private creeds and confessions that are often improvised, unwritten, and thus not open to public scrutiny, not susceptible to evaluation and, crucially and ironically, not, therefore, subject to testing by Scripture to see whether they are true (p. 15).
This is a good reminder to those of us in Baptist traditions. Ever since W.B. Johnson’s unfortunate remark at the formation of the Southern Baptist Convention in 1845 that Baptists have “no creed but the Bible,” large numbers of Baptists in North America have been nervous about confessions. This despite the fact that numerous scholars have demonstrated that Johnson’s views were out of step with what most Baptists have historically believed. In fact, Johnson’s views were closer to the frontier Restorationists such as the Disciples of Christ than they were to earlier Baptists. Nevertheless, many contemporary Baptists continue to reject, in principle, any written confessional statement.
Others Baptists make a sharp distinction between creeds and confessions, arguing that the former are non-Baptist because they are prescriptive, while the latter are kosher because they are merely descriptive. Perhaps this is true in some cases. But in my experience, nearly every Baptist church or group of churches either makes their confessional statement prescriptive for at least some people, thus making it “creedal” according to this understanding, or they downplay their confession altogether, becoming in practice the “anonymous creedalists” whom Trueman is critiquing. This very tension lies near the heart of the differences between many contemporary Southern Baptists and the moderate Baptists who have left or disengaged from SBC life.
But I think Trueman is correct that even anti-creedal Baptists are intuitively confessional. For example, try introducing a complementarian view of gender roles into the average moderate Baptist church. Or, to move in a different direction, try introducing a plural-elder-led congregational polity into many a revivalistic Baptist congregation. Or, to offer yet another example, try offering an altar call in a seeker-driven Baptist megachurch. In such cases, it likely wouldn’t take long for the unwritten creedal traditions of the church to come to the forefront.
I believe that Baptists need a better theology of confessionalism. Southern Baptists have taken some steps in this direction in recent years, though we remain selectively confessional for the most part. For example, though I have to affirm the Baptist Faith and Message 2000 as a seminary professor, the church down the road can reject the BF&M entirely and remain Southern Baptist so long as they continue to give to the Cooperative Program and they don’t approve of the homosexual lifestyle. Reformed Baptists are probably closer to Trueman’s ideal, but I think they require a bit too much. For my part, I’m just not convinced that everybody in a church should have to affirm the so-called Christian Sabbath, or limited atonement, or covenant theology, or the regulative principle of worship to be a member of a particular congregation.
It seems like there needs to be a middle way, a generous confessionalism, that doesn’t claim too much, but claims enough–and claims it for enough people. Perhaps the proverbial balanced middle is to move toward a confessional basis of cooperation in the SBC by adopting an abstract of the BF&M 2000 that churches must affirm to remain in friendly cooperation with the Convention.
What are your thoughts?